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Programa de lista vinculada en C


Una lista enlazada es una secuencia de estructuras de datos, que están conectadas entre sí mediante enlaces. La lista vinculada es una secuencia de vínculos que contiene elementos. Cada enlace contiene una conexión a otro enlace. La lista vinculada es la segunda estructura de datos más utilizada después de la matriz.

Implementación en C

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdbool.h>

struct node {
   int data;
   int key;
   struct node *next;
};

struct node *head = NULL;
struct node *current = NULL;

//display the list
void printList() {
   struct node *ptr = head;
   printf("n[ ");
	
   //start from the beginning
   while(ptr != NULL) {
      printf("(%d,%d) ",ptr->key,ptr->data);
      ptr = ptr->next;
   }
	
   printf(" ]");
}

//insert link at the first location
void insertFirst(int key, int data) {
   //create a link
   struct node *link = (struct node*) malloc(sizeof(struct node));
	
   link->key = key;
   link->data = data;
	
   //point it to old first node
   link->next = head;
	
   //point first to new first node
   head = link;
}

//delete first item
struct node* deleteFirst() {

   //save reference to first link
   struct node *tempLink = head;
	
   //mark next to first link as first 
   head = head->next;
	
   //return the deleted link
   return tempLink;
}

//is list empty
bool isEmpty() {
   return head == NULL;
}

int length() {
   int length = 0;
   struct node *current;
	
   for(current = head; current != NULL; current = current->next) {
      length&plus;&plus;;
   }
	
   return length;
}

//find a link with given key
struct node* find(int key) {

   //start from the first link
   struct node* current = head;

   //if list is empty
   if(head == NULL) {
      return NULL;
   }

   //navigate through list
   while(current->key != key) {
	
      //if it is last node
      if(current->next == NULL) {
         return NULL;
      } else {
         //go to next link
         current = current->next;
      }
   }      
	
   //if data found, return the current Link
   return current;
}

//delete a link with given key
struct node* delete(int key) {

   //start from the first link
   struct node* current = head;
   struct node* previous = NULL;
	
   //if list is empty
   if(head == NULL) {
      return NULL;
   }

   //navigate through list
   while(current->key != key) {

      //if it is last node
      if(current->next == NULL) {
         return NULL;
      } else {
         //store reference to current link
         previous = current;
         //move to next link
         current = current->next;
      }
   }

   //found a match, update the link
   if(current == head) {
      //change first to point to next link
      head = head->next;
   } else {
      //bypass the current link
      previous->next = current->next;
   }    
	
   return current;
}

void sort() {

   int i, j, k, tempKey, tempData;
   struct node *current;
   struct node *next;
	
   int size = length();
   k = size ;
	
   for ( i = 0 ; i < size - 1 ; i&plus;&plus;, k-- ) {
      current = head;
      next = head->next;
		
      for ( j = 1 ; j < k ; j&plus;&plus; ) {   

         if ( current->data > next->data ) {
            tempData = current->data;
            current->data = next->data;
            next->data = tempData;

            tempKey = current->key;
            current->key = next->key;
            next->key = tempKey;
         }
			
         current = current->next;
         next = next->next;
      }
   }   
}

void reverse(struct node** head_ref) {
   struct node* prev   = NULL;
   struct node* current = *head_ref;
   struct node* next;
	
   while (current != NULL) {
      next  = current->next;
      current->next = prev;   
      prev = current;
      current = next;
   }
	
   *head_ref = prev;
}

void main() {
   insertFirst(1,10);
   insertFirst(2,20);
   insertFirst(3,30);
   insertFirst(4,1);
   insertFirst(5,40);
   insertFirst(6,56); 

   printf("Original List: "); 
	
   //print list
   printList();

   while(!isEmpty()) {            
      struct node *temp = deleteFirst();
      printf("nDeleted value:");
      printf("(%d,%d) ",temp->key,temp->data);
   }  
	
   printf("nList after deleting all items: ");
   printList();
   insertFirst(1,10);
   insertFirst(2,20);
   insertFirst(3,30);
   insertFirst(4,1);
   insertFirst(5,40);
   insertFirst(6,56);
   
   printf("nRestored List: ");
   printList();
   printf("n");  

   struct node *foundLink = find(4);
	
   if(foundLink != NULL) {
      printf("Element found: ");
      printf("(%d,%d) ",foundLink->key,foundLink->data);
      printf("n");  
   } else {
      printf("Element not found.");
   }

   delete(4);
   printf("List after deleting an item: ");
   printList();
   printf("n");
   foundLink = find(4);
	
   if(foundLink != NULL) {
      printf("Element found: ");
      printf("(%d,%d) ",foundLink->key,foundLink->data);
      printf("n");
   } else {
      printf("Element not found.");
   }
	
   printf("n");
   sort();
	
   printf("List after sorting the data: ");
   printList();
	
   reverse(&head);
   printf("nList after reversing the data: ");
   printList();
}

Si compilamos y ejecutamos el programa anterior, producirá el siguiente resultado:

Producción

Original List: 
[ (6,56) (5,40) (4,1) (3,30) (2,20) (1,10) ]
Deleted value:(6,56) 
Deleted value:(5,40) 
Deleted value:(4,1) 
Deleted value:(3,30) 
Deleted value:(2,20) 
Deleted value:(1,10) 
List after deleting all items: 
[ ]
Restored List: 
[ (6,56) (5,40) (4,1) (3,30) (2,20) (1,10) ]
Element found: (4,1) 
List after deleting an item: 
[ (6,56) (5,40) (3,30) (2,20) (1,10) ]
Element not found.
List after sorting the data: 
[ (1,10) (2,20) (3,30) (5,40) (6,56) ]
List after reversing the data: 
[ (6,56) (5,40) (3,30) (2,20) (1,10) ]

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